(1) The UNFCCC dates back to the so-called «Earth Summit» held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. This convention defined a framework for action to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in order to avoid «dangerous anthropogenic interventions in the climate system». The UNFCCC, which entered into force on 21 March 1994, now has almost universal membership of 195 parties. The annual Conferences of the Parties (COP) monitor the implementation of the Convention. COP3 adopted the Kyoto Protocol, which expired and was not followed at COP15 in Copenhagen. COP17 in Durban created the Green Climate Fund, the basis of the Paris conference, at which, for the first time in more than 20 years of UN negotiations, participants want to reach a legally binding and universal agreement on climate, with the aim of keeping global warming below 2°C. On 22 Ambassador Mahmoud Saikal, Permanent Representative of the I.R. Afghanistan, participated in the high-level signing ceremony of the Paris Agreement on climate change and signed the agreement on behalf of Afghanistan. 174 countries and the European Union also signed the agreement, which surpassed the all-time record for signing an international agreement on day one. On this important occasion, Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said: «I am very pleased to see so much support and political dynamism to move the agreement forward. With ratification by the European Union, the agreement obtained enough parts to enter into force on 4 November 2016.
On 4 November 2019, the United States notified the depositary of its withdrawal from the Agreement, which will take effect exactly one year after that date.  The Paris Agreement is an agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that addresses the reduction, adaptation and financing of greenhouse gas emissions from 2020 on or after 2020. . . .